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a N=205.
b N=37.
IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 are key drivers
of Type 2 inflammation in asthma

IL-4 and IL-13 are central Type 2
cytokines with distinct and
overlapping roles3

Click on the cytokines to see how they fit
into Type 2 inflammation in asthma

Adapted from Hammad H
and Lambrecht BN, 2008,4
and Robinson D et al, 2017.3

Type 2 inflammation in asthma can result in increased exacerbations and decreased lung function3

Download the pathway


Allergic asthma is mediated by the Type 2 immune response3

IL-4 and IL-13 promote class switching of B cells to produce
IgE and play an important role in allergic inflammation in asthma3,5-7

Adapted from Froidure A et al, 2016,5
and Robinson D et al, 2017.3

IL-4 and IL-13 increase expression of the
high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI, which results in
increased IgE/anti-IgE mediated histamine release7

IL-4 and IL-13 are central
Type 2 cytokines
with distinct
and overlapping roles3

ILC2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells; TSLP, thymic stromal lymphopoietin.

  1. Seys SF, Scheers H, Van den Brande P, et al. Cluster analysis of sputum cytokine-high profiles reveals diversity in T(h)2-high asthma patients. Respir Res. 2017;18(1):39. doi:10.1186/s12931-017-0524-y
  2. Peters MC, Mekonnen ZK, Yuan S, Bhakta NR, Woodruff PG, Fahy JV. Measures of gene expression in sputum cells can identify TH2-high and TH2-low subtypes of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):388-394.
  3. Robinson D, Humbert M, Buhl R, et al. Revisiting type 2-high and type 2-low airway inflammation in asthma: current knowledge and therapeutic implications. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47(2):161-175.
  4. Hammad H, Lambrecht BN. Dendritic cells and epithelial cells: linking innate and adaptive immunity in asthma. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8(3):193-204.
  5. Froidure A, Mouthuy J, Durham SR, Chanez P, Sibille Y, Pilette C. Asthma phenotypes and IgE responses. Eur Respir J. 2016;47(1):304-319.
  6. Zissler UM, Esser-von Bieren J, Jakwerth CA, Chaker AM, Schmidt-Weber CB. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma. Allergy. 2016;71(4):475-494.
  7. Kaur D, Hollins F, Woodman L, et al. Mast cells express IL-13Rα1: IL-13 promotes human lung mast cell proliferation and FcεRI expression. Allergy. 2006;61(9):1047-1053.